Ships Operating in Polar Waters
Una nuevo cortometraje documental de la OMI muestra como el Código polar de la Organización fomenta un transporte marítimo más seguro y ecológicamente racional en las aguas del Ártico y Antártico.
Un nuevo cortometraje documental de la OMI muestra como el Código Polar de la Organización, fomenta un transporte marítimo más seguro y ecológicamente racional en las aguas del Ártico y Antártico.
A bordo del buque de expedición Ocean Diamond, los ecoturistas contemplan la impresionante belleza del paisaje antártico. Esta es su oportunidad para encontrar especies únicas y admirar la escarpada majestuosidad de los glaciares e icebergs. Para la mayoría de ellos, este será el viaje de sus vidas.
Para realizar este documental, un equipo de la OMI visitó el Ocean Diamond durante su travesía por la Antártida, con el objetivo de conocer de primera mano qué significa el Código polar para buques de estas características. Como el capitán del buque Oleg Klaptenko confirmó, operar en aguas polares supone el examen definitivo tanto para su buque como para sus propias habilidades como experto navegante.
"Aquí hay varias fuentes de peligro: las bajas temperaturas, la mala visibilidad, la larga noche y el día polar, la lejanía de nuestros hogares y de cualquier instalación con presencia humana que pueda ayudarte. También la falta de servicios hidrográficos buenos, completos y precisos", señala el capitán Klaptenko.
Con un tráfico cada vez mayor en las aguas polares, la Organización Marítima Internacional (OMI), la organización de las Naciones Unidas responsable de la seguridad de la vida humana en el mar y la protección del medio marino, ha abordado la preocupación internacional sobre la protección del medio ambiente polar y la seguridad de los pasajeros y la gente de mar. La OMI ha introducido nuevas reglas que todos los buques que operan en estas difíciles aguas deben cumplir.
El Código polar entró en vigor el 1 de enero de 2017. Establece normas obligatorias que abarcan todas las cuestiones relacionadas con el proyecto, construcción, equipo, funcionamiento, formación y protección del medio ambiente para los buques que operen en aguas polares.
Estas reglas van más allá de las prescripciones existentes de la OMI como el Convenio MARPOL y el Convenio SOLAS. Las extensas normas ambientales y de seguridad incluidas en estos y otros convenios de la OMI también se aplican al transporte marítimo en aguas polares.
El Código polar tiene dos partes. Una se ocupa de la seguridad del buque y el personal, la otra de la protección del medio ambiente. Actualmente, los buques ya están sujetos a estrictas reglas ambientales en virtud del Convenio MARPOL, pero el Código polar añade otro nivel. Descargar hidrocarburos o mezclas oleosas en el mar, por ejemplo, está terminantemente prohibido en virtud del Código polar, y todos los petroleros deberán disponer la construcción de doble casco y de doble fondo para evitar los derrames de hidrocarburos en caso de accidente.
El nuevo film de la OMI muestra el equipo específico para operaciones polares que el Ocean Diamond lleva a bordo. Por ejemplo, los picahielos para trocear el hielo que pueda formarse en la cubierta y los trajes térmicos para la tripulación y los pasajeros en caso de emergencia. También se muestra el sistema incorporado en las ventanas grandes del puente que vierte agua caliente por fuera para derretir el hielo, así como los paneles calientes que sirven para asegurar que se mantiene una perfecta visibilidad a lo largo del viaje.
Operacionalmente, la planificación de la travesía es crucial, al igual que recibir información exacta y actualizada sobre el estado del hielo y del tiempo meteorológico. Y hay medios de comunicación que pueden utilizarse cuando la cobertura de los satélites es limitada.
En la cocina, donde un equipo dedicado de chefs, cocineros y ayudantes que preparan la comida para más de 200 turistas y tripulantes hambrientos cada día, hay contenedores para recoger desperdicios de alimentos y desechos de plástico y papel que luego son introducidos en bolsas y llevados a tierra. El Código polar establece estrictas reglas en lo que se refiere a descargas de basuras y de cadáveres de animales.
Navegar en aguas polares también plantea determinados retos a la tripulación. "Debido al Código polar, todos los miembros de la tripulación, ya sean oficiales o marineros, tienen que seguir ciertos programas educativos, aprobar exámenes y obtener certificados y permisos para navegar en aguas polares, y yo estoy de acuerdo con esto", explica el capitán Klaptenko.
Cada vez serán más los marinos que tengan que adquirir estas habilidades, ya que se prevé que la actividad marítima en las regiones polares siga creciendo en volumen y diversidad a lo largo de los próximos años. El proceso de deshielo ha transformado estas regiones antes inhóspitas en un destino cada vez más atractivo para el turismo y la actividad comercial marítima.
Como la película enfatiza, la cuestión no trata de si esta actividad es buena o mala. La cuestión es cómo es gestionada para proteger el medio ambiente y salvaguardar las vidas de las personas que viven y trabajan en estas zonas tan remotas.
Y en ese punto es donde entra en escena el Código Polar.
International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code)
MO's International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) is mandatory under both the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The Polar Code covers the full range of design, construction, equipment, operational, training, search and rescue and environmental protection matters relevant to ships operating in the inhospitable waters surrounding the two poles. The Polar Code entered into force on 1 January 2017.
The Polar Code and SOLAS amendments were adopted during the 94th session of IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), in November 2014; the environmental provisions and MARPOL amendments were adopted during the 68th session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) in May 2015.
Polar Code Summary
The Polar Code is intended to cover the full range of shipping-related matters relevant to navigation in waters surrounding the two poles – ship design, construction and equipment; operational and training concerns; search and rescue; and, equally important, the protection of the unique environment and eco-systems of the polar regions.
The Polar Code includes mandatory measures covering safety part (part I-A) and pollution prevention (part II-A) and recommendatory provisions for both (parts I-B and II-B).
The Code will require ships intending to operating in the defined waters of the Antarctic and Arctic to apply for a Polar Ship Certificate, which would classify the vessel as Category A ship - ships designed for operation in polar waters at least in medium first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions; Category B ship - a ship not included in category A, designed for operation in polar waters in at least thin first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions; or Category C ship - a ship designed to operate in open water or in ice conditions less severe than those included in Categories A and B.
The issuance of a certificate would require an assessment, taking into account the anticipated range of operating conditions and hazards the ship may encounter in the polar waters. The assessment would include information on identified operational limitations, and plans or procedures or additional safety equipment necessary to mitigate incidents with potential safety or environmental consequences.
Ships need to carry a Polar Water Operational Manual, to provide the Owner, Operator, Master and crew with sufficient information regarding the ship's operational capabilities and limitations in order to support their decision-making process.
The chapters in the Code each set out goals and functional requirements, to include those covering ship structure; stability and subdivision; watertight and weathertight integrity; machinery installations; operational safety; fire safety/protection; life-saving appliances and arrangements; safety of navigation; communications; voyage planning; manning and training; prevention of oil pollution; prevention of pollution form from noxious liquid substances from ships; prevention of pollution by sewage from ships; and prevention of pollution by discharge of garbage from ships.
Chapter 12 of the Polar Code on manning and training says that companies must ensure that masters, chief mates and officers in charge of a navigational watch on board ships operating in polar waters have completed appropriate training, taking into account the provisions of the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) and its related STCW Code.
Mandatory minimum requirements for the training and qualifications of masters and deck officers on ships operating in polar waters were also adopted by IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee in November 2016. They became mandatory under the STCW Convention and the STCW Code from 1 July 2018.
The safety of ships operating in the harsh, remote and vulnerable polar areas and the protection of the pristine environments around the two poles have always been a matter of concern for IMO and many relevant requirements, provisions and recommendations have been developed over the years.
Trends and forecasts indicate that polar shipping will grow in volume and diversify in nature over the coming years and these challenges need to be met without compromising either safety of life at sea or the sustainability of the polar environments.
Ships operating in the Arctic and Antarctic environments are exposed to a number of unique risks. Poor weather conditions and the relative lack of good charts, communication systems and other navigational aids pose challenges for mariners. The remoteness of the areas makes rescue or clean up operations difficult and costly. Cold temperatures may reduce the effectiveness of numerous components of the ship, ranging from deck machinery and emergency equipment to sea suctions. When ice is present, it can impose additional loads on the hull, propulsion system and appendages.
The International code of safety for ships operating in polar waters (Polar Code) covers the full range of design, construction, equipment, operational, training, search and rescue and environmental protection matters relevant to ships operating in the inhospitable waters surrounding the two poles.
The move to develop a mandatory Code followed the adoption by the IMO Assembly, in 2009, of Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters (Resolution A.1024(26)), which are intended to address those additional provisions deemed necessary for consideration beyond existing requirements of the SOLAS and MARPOL Conventions, in order to take into account the climatic conditions of Polar waters and to meet appropriate standards of maritime safety and pollution prevention. The Guidelines are recommendatory.
Whilst Arctic and Antarctic waters have a number of similarities, there are also significant differences. The Arctic is an ocean surrounded by continents while the Antarctic is a continent surrounded by an ocean. The Antarctic sea ice retreats significantly during the summer season or is dispersed by permanent gyres in the two major seas of the Antarctic: the Weddell and the Ross. Thus there is relatively little multi-year ice in the Antarctic. Conversely, Arctic sea ice survives many summer seasons and there is a significant amount of multi-year ice. Whilst the marine environments of both Polar seas are similarly vulnerable, response to such challenge should duly take into account specific features of the legal and political regimes applicable to their respective marine spaces.
What does the Polar Code mean for ship safety?
The following infographic illustrates the safety requirements of the Polar Code - available to view and download:
How does the Polar Code protect the environment?
The following infographic illustrates the environmental requirements of the Polar Code - available to view and download:
A MARPOL regulation, to protect the Antarctic from pollution by heavy grade oils, was adopted by the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), at its 60th session in March, 2010. The amendments entered into force on 1 August 2011.
The amendments add a new chapter 9 to MARPOL Annex I with a new regulation 43 which prohibits the carriage in bulk as cargo, or carriage and use as fuel, of: crude oils having a density at 15°C higher than 900 kg/m3; oils, other than crude oils, having a density at 15°C higher than 900 kg/m3 or a kinematic viscosity at 50°C higher than 180 mm2/s; or bitumen, tar and their emulsions. An exception is envisaged for vessels engaged in securing the safety of ships or in a search and rescue operation.
Under the Polar Code ships are encouraged not to use or carry heavy fuel oil in the Arctic. IMO's Sub-Committee on Pollution Prevention and Response (PPR) 7th session in 2020 agreed draft amendments to MARPOL Annex I (addition of a new regulation 43A) to introduce a prohibition on the use and carriage for use as fuel of heavy fuel oil (HFO) by ships in Arctic waters on and after 1 July 2024. The draft amendments will be submitted to the Marine Environment Protection Committee with a view to approval and circulation for future adoption.
Voyage planning in remote areas
The IMO Assembly in November 2007 adopted resolution A.999(25) Guidelines on voyage planning for passenger ships operating in remote areas, in response to the growing popularity of ocean travel for passengers and the desire for exotic destinations, which have led to increasing numbers of passenger ships operating in remote areas. When developing a plan for voyages to remote areas, special consideration should be given to the environmental nature of the area of operation, the limited resources, and navigational information.
The detailed voyage and passage plan should include the following factors: safe areas and no-go areas; surveyed marine corridors, if available; and contingency plans for emergencies in the event of limited support being available for assistance in areas remote from SAR facilities.
In addition, the detailed voyage and passage plan for ships operating in Arctic or Antarctic waters should include the following factors: conditions when it is not safe to enter areas containing ice or icebergs because of darkness, swell, fog and pressure ice; safe distance to icebergs; and presence of ice and icebergs, and safe speed in such areas.
Ship reporting in the Arctic region
The MSC, at its 91st session in November 2012, adopted a new mandatory ship reporting system "In the Barents Area (Barents SRS)" (proposed by Norway and the Russian Federation). The new mandatory ship reporting system entered into force at 0000 hours UTC on 1 June 2013. The following categories of ships passing through or proceeding to and from ports and anchorages in the Barents SRS area are required to participate in the ship reporting system, by reporting to either Vardø VTS centre or Murmansk VTS centre: all ships with a gross tonnage of 5,000 and above; all tankers; all ships carrying hazardous cargoes; a vessel towing when the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres; and any ship not under command, restricted in their ability to manoeuvre or having defective navigational aids.
Ship routeing in the Arctic
The MSC, at its 99th session in May 2018, adopted new and amended ships' routeing measures in the Bering Sea and Bering Strait, aimed at reducing the risks of incidents - the first measures adopted by IMO for the Arctic region where the Polar Code applies.
The measures include six two-way routes and six precautionary areas, to be voluntary for or all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above, in the Bering Sea and Bering Strait off the coast of the Chukotskiy Peninsula and Alaska, proposed by the Russian Federation and the United States. These waters are expected to see increased traffic due to rising economic activity in the Arctic.
In addition, the MSC established three areas to be avoided in the Bering Sea, proposed by the United States, to improve safety of navigation and protect the fragile and unique environment. These measures entered into force on 1 December 2018.
Polar Code (second phase)
IMO's Maritime Safety Committee and related sub-committees are looking at the application of the Polar Code to ships not currently covered by SOLAS.
The Polar Code is mandatory for certain ships under the SOLAS and MARPOL Conventions. While SOLAS Chapter V (Safety of navigation) applies to all ships on all voyages (with some specific exceptions), the other chapters of the Convention do not apply to some categories of ships, including cargo ships of less than 500 gross tonnage; pleasure yachts not engaged in trade; and fishing vessels (sometimes termed "non-SOLAS ships").
The IMO Assembly, meeting in November-December 2019, adopted an Assembly resolution urging Member States to implement, on a voluntary basis, safety measures of the Polar Code on ships not certified under the SOLAS Convention (Download A 31/Res.1137).
IMO's Maritime Safety Committee has also, in 2019 (MSC 101), approved guidance for navigation and communication equipment intended for use on ships operating in polar waters. The guidance includes recommendations on temperature and mechanical shock testing, and on how to address ice accretion and battery performance in cold temperatures.
The MSC also approved Interim guidelines on life-saving appliances and arrangements for ships operating in polar waters.
The Sub-Committee on Navigation, Communications and Search and Rescue (NCSR) is giving consideration to the possible application of chapters 9 (Safety of navigation) and 11 (Voyage planning) of the Polar Code to non-SOLAS ships and discussing how best to enhance the safety of these ships when operating in polar waters. A correspondence group has been established to report back to the next NCSR session.
IMO/Canada training for seafarers operating in Polar waters
IMO and Transport Canada have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to deliver regional capacity-building workshops to provide training for trainers to deliver training programmes for seafarers operating in Polar waters and on the implementation of the Polar Code.
The project harnesses IMO's competence as the United Nations specialized agency responsible for setting global standards for the safety, security and facilitation of international shipping and the prevention of pollution by ships, in collaboration with Canada's financial support and expertise in supporting implementation of the Polar Code.
The regional train-the-trainer workshops aim to assist Governments and their maritime training institutes in enhancing the skills and competence of maritime instructors to develop competence-based training programmes, update existing programmes and improve the delivery of specific IMO model courses (Basic and Advanced training for ships operating in Polar waters).
Under the project, four regional capacity-building workshops will be delivered:
Canada (September 2019) - The seminar (9 to13 September 2019) was attended by eleven participants from seven countries Canada, Bahamas, Chile, Denmark, Iceland, India, Jamaica) with representatives from Governments and maritime academies. The workshop was arranged in co-operation with the Maritime Authority of Canada and was held in the Marine Institute, St. John's, Newfoundland. The aim of this event was to assist maritime training institutes in enhancing the skills and competence of maritime instructors to develop competence based training programmes, update existing programmes and improve the use of the IMO model courses on Basic and Advanced training for ships operating in polar waters. The training was focused on how to implement IMO conventions dealing with ships operating in polar waters, especially the Polar Code and STCW Convention. It included technical presentations, case studies and table-top exercises, simulations on navigation simulator, regional regulations and the required training and certification for seafarers on ships operating in polar waters.
Valparaíso, Chile (18-22 November 2019) -regional workshop.
Republic of Korea - to be confirmed
Russian Federation - to be confirmed
IMO as observer organization to the Arctic Council
The IMO was granted observer status at the Eleventh Ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council Rovaniemi from 6 to 7 May 2019. The Arctic Coucil and its working groups, in particular the Working Group on the Protection of the Marine Environment (PAME), engage in and promote the implementation of IMO's Polar Code and various IMO staff have participated in, and contributed, to PAME meetings. Click here for more information on the PAME WebPortal, a rich resource for further information on the Polar Code, including documentation on best practices established by Administrations, class societies and the shipping industry.
Milestone for polar protection as comprehensive new ship regulations come into force
The mandatory Polar Code, for ships operating in Arctic and Antarctic waters, enters into force on 1 January 2017
With more and more ships navigating in polar waters, IMO has moved to address international concern about the protection of the polar environment and the safety of seafarers and passengers with the introduction of new regulations that all ships operating in these harsh and challenging waters must comply with.
The mandatory Polar Code, for ships operating in Arctic and Antarctic waters, enters into force on 1 January 2017, marking a historic milestone in the work of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to address this key issue. Its requirements, which were specifically tailored for the polar environments, go above and beyond those of existing IMO conventions such as MARPOL and SOLAS, which are applicable globally and will still apply to shipping in polar waters.
Trends and forecasts indicate that polar shipping will grow and diversify over the coming years. In the Arctic, commercial shipping can make significant reductions in voyage distances between Europe and the Far East by sailing northern routes, while both the Arctic and Antarctic are becoming increasingly popular tourist destinations. These challenges need to be met without compromising either safety of life at sea or the sustainability of the polar environments.
Ships operating in the polar regions face a number of unique risks. Poor weather conditions and the relative lack of good charts, communication systems and other navigational aids pose challenges for mariners. And if accidents do occur, the remoteness of the areas makes rescue or clean-up operations difficult and costly.
Extreme cold may reduce the effectiveness of numerous components of the ship, including deck machinery and emergency equipment. And when ice is present, it can impose additional loads on the hull and propulsion system.
To address all these issues, the Polar Code sets out mandatory standards that cover the full range of design, construction, equipment, operational, training and environmental protection matters that apply to ships operating in the inhospitable waters surrounding the two poles.
he mandatory Polar Code requirements, which were specifically tailored for the polar environments, go above and beyond those of existing IMO conventions such as MARPOL and SOLAS, which are applicable globally and will still apply to shipping in polar waters.
Protective thermal clothing, ice removal equipment, enclosed lifeboats and the ability to ensure visibility in ice, freezing rain and snow conditions are among the Code’s mandatory safety requirements. The regulations extend to the materials used to build ships intended for polar operation, and all tankers under the Code will have to have double hulls. From an environmental perspective, the code prohibits or strictly limits discharges of oil, chemicals, sewage, garbage, food wastes and many other substances.
The Polar Code will make operating in these waters safer, helping to protect the lives of crews and passengers. It will also provide a strong regime to minimise the impact of shipping operations on the pristine polar regions. It will be seen as a major achievement in IMO’s work to promote safe and sustainable shipping in all regions of the world, including the most challenging and difficult.
The Polar Code includes mandatory provisions covering safety measures (part I-A) and pollution prevention measures (part II-A) and additional guidance regarding the provisions for both (parts I-B and II-B).
The safety provisions of the Polar Code will apply to new ships constructed after 1 January 2017. Ships constructed before 1 January 2017 will be required to meet the relevant requirements of the Polar Code by the first intermediate or renewal survey, whichever occurs first, after 1 January 2018.
The environmental provisions of the Polar Code apply both to existing ships and new ships.
The Code will require ships intending to operate in the defined Arctic waters and the Antarctic area to apply for a Polar Ship Certificate, which would classify the vessel as either:
• Category A - ships designed for operation in polar waters in at least medium first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions
• Category B - a ship not included in category A, designed for operation in polar waters in at least thin first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions
• Category C - a ship designed to operate in open water or in ice conditions less severe than those included in categories A and B.
Before receiving a certificate, a ship would require an assessment, taking into account the anticipated range of operating and environmental conditions and hazards it may encounter in the polar waters.
Ships will need to carry a Polar Water Operational Manual, to provide the Owner, Operator, Master and crew with sufficient information regarding the ship's operational capabilities and limitations in order to support their decision-making process.
The chapters in the Code set out goals and functional requirements specifically covering: ship structure; stability and subdivision; watertight and weathertight integrity; machinery installations; fire safety/protection; life-saving appliances and arrangements; safety of navigation; communications; voyage planning; manning and training; prevention of pollution by oil; control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk; prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form; prevention of pollution by sewage from ships; and prevention of pollution by garbage from ships.
The Polar Code and SOLAS amendments were adopted during the 94th session of IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), in November 2014; the environmental provisions and MARPOL amendments were adopted during the 68th session of the MarineEnvironment Protection Committee (MEPC) in May 2015.
Mandatory minimum requirements for the training and qualifications of masters and deck officers on ships operating in polar waters were adopted by IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee in November 2016.
They will become mandatory under the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) and its related STCW Code from 1 July 2018.